Vasala Sutra—Outcast

Thus, I have heard: On one occasion the ‘Thus Come One’ was staying at the monastery of Anathapindika, in Jeta Grove, near Savatthi. One morning the ‘Thus Come One’ took his bowl and robe and was about to enter Savatthi for alms.

At that time, in the house of the Brahmin Aggika Bharadvaja, a fire was burning and an offering was prepared. Then, the ‘Thus Come One’, going for alms from house to house in Savatthi, approached the house of the BrahminAggika Bharadvaja.

Upon seeing the Thus Come One coming at a distance, the Brahmin said: “Stay there, O shaveling! Stay there, O wretched monk! Stay there, O miserable outcast!”

Upon hearing this, the ‘Thus Come One’ addressed the Brahmin as follows: “Do you know, O Brahmin, who an outcast is or the things that make an outcast?”

No, indeed, O Venerable Gotama. I do not know who an outcast is or the things that make an outcast. Would you explain the doctrine to me so that I may know who an outcast is and what things make an outcast!”

Hear then, O brahmin! Bear it well in mind; I shall speak.

The Brahmin replied: “Very good, Venerable One.”

The ‘Thus Come One’ spoke as follows:

1) The man who is irritable, rancorous, vicious, detractive, perverted in views and deceitful, he is an outcast.

2) Whoever in this world harms living beings (once-born or twice-born), in whom there is no compassion for living beings, he is an outcast.

3) Whoever destroys and besieges villages and hamlets and is known as an oppressor, he is an outcast.

4) Whether he is in the village or in the forest, whoever steals or appropriates (gains) by theft what belongs to others or what is not given, he is an outcast.

5) Whoever, having really taken a debt, flees when pressed saying: “There is no debt to you,” he is an outcast.

6) Whoever, desiring (wishing) some trifle, kills a man going along on the road, and pillages others, he is an outcast.

7) Who, for his own sake or for the sake of others, or for the sake of wealth, utters lies when asked as a witness, he is an outcast.

8) Whoever by force or with consent is seen transgressing with the wives of relatives or friends, he is an outcast.

9) Whoever being rich but does not support his aged parents who have passed their youth, he is an outcast.

10) Whoever strikes or by speech annoys parents, brothers, sisters or parents-in-law, he is an outcast.

11) Whoever, when questioned about what is good, counsels people what is wrong (advise others wrongly) and teaches in concealing way, he is an outcast.

12) Whoever, having done an evil deed, wishes that it may not be known to others and conceals it with his actions, he is an outcast.

13) Whoever, having gone to another’s house and partaken of choice food, does him in return when he comes, he is an outcast.

14) Whoever deceives by falsehood a Brahmana or ascetic or any other mendicant, he is an outcast.

15) Whoever by speech annoys a Brahmana or ascetic, when meal time has come and does not give alms, he is an outcast.

16) Whoever in this world, shrouded in ignorance, predicts what is not expected, he is an outcast.

17) Whoever exalts himself and despises others and is debased by his pride, he is an outcast.

18) Whoever is annoying, avaricious, of base desires, selfish, deceitful, shameless and fearless in evil actions, he is an outcast.

19) Whoever reviles the Buddha or one of his disciple, recluse or householder, he is an outcast.

20) Whoever, without being an Arahant claims to be an Arahant, is a thief in the whole universe, he is the lowest outcast.

21) Not by birth is one an outcast, not by birth is one a Brahmana but by deeds one becomes an outcast, by deeds one becomes a Brahmana.

22) Know it as such by this illustration: there was the son of an outcast, known as Matanga, a dog-cooker.

23) This Matanga achieved the highest glory, which is difficult to obtain. Many warriors and Brahmins came to minister unto him.

24) Mounting the celestial vehicle along the passionless highway, he soared the Brahma realm, having discarded sense-desires. Though birth did not prevent him from being reborn in the Brahma realm.

25) There are Brahmins born in the family of preceptors, kinsmen of Veda hymns. They too are frequently addicted to evil deeds.

26) In this life, they are despised; in next life, they get a woeful state. Birth does not preclude them from a woeful state or from condemnation.

27) By birth, one is not an outcast, by birth one is not a Brahmana. But by deeds one is an outcast, by deeds one is a Brahmana.

When this was spoken, the Brahmin Vaggika Bharadvaja addressed the ‘Thus Come One’ as follows:

Excellent, O Venerable Gotama. Excellent! It is as if, O Venerable Gotama, a man were to set upright that which was overturned or were to reveal that which was hidden or were to point out the way to one who has gone astray or were to hold a lamp amidst the darkness, so that whoever has eyes may see, even so has the doctrine been expounded in various ways by the Venerable Gotama.

And I seek refuge in the Venerable Gotama, the Doctrine, and the Order of Disciples. May the Venerable Gotama receive me as a follower who has taken refuge from this very day to life’s end.

 

Mangala Sutta—Blessing

Thus, I have heard:

On one occasion the ‘Exalted One’ was dwelling at the monastery of Anathapindika, in Jeta Grove, near Savatthi.

Now when the night was far spent, a certain deity, whose surpassing splendour illuminated the entire Jeta Grove, came to the presence of the ‘Exalted One’ and drawing near, respectfully saluted him and stood at one side. Standing, he addressed the ‘Exalted One’ in verse:

1) Many deities and men, yearning after good, have pondered on blessings. Pray and tell me the highest blessings.

2) Not to associate with fools, to associate with the wise and to honour those who are worthy of honour, this is the highest blessing.

3) To reside in a suitable locality, to have done meritorious actions in the past and to set oneself in the right course, this is the highest blessing.

4) Vast learning, perfect handicraft, a highly trained discipline and pleasant speech, this the highest blessing.

5) The support of father and mother, the cherishing of a wife and children and peaceful occupations, this is the highest blessing.

6) Liberality (freedom), righteous conduct, the helping of relatives and blameless actions, this is the highest blessing.

7) To cease and abstain from evil, forbearance with respect to intoxicants and steadfastness in virtue, this is the highest blessing.

8) Reverence, humility, contentment, gratitude and opportune hearing of the Dharma, this is the highest blessing.

9) Patience, obedience, sight of Samanas and religious discussions at due season, this is the highest blessing.

10) Self-control, holy life, perception of the Noble truths and the realization of Nivarna, this is the highest blessing.

11) He whose mind does not flutter by contact with worldly contingencies, sorrowless (without sorrow), stainless (without stain), and secure, this is the highest blessing.

12) To them, fulfilling matters such as these, everywhere invincible and in every way moving happily, these are the highest blessings.

 

Parabhava Sutta—Downfall

Thus, I have heard:

On one occasion the ‘Exalted One’ was dwelling at the monastery of Anathapindika, in Jeta Gorve, near Savatthi.

Now when the night was far spent a certain deity, whose surpassing splendour illuminated the whole Jeta Grove, came to the presence of the ‘Exalted One’ and, drawing near, respectfully saluted him and stood at one side. Standing, he addressed the ‘Exalted One’ in verse:

1) Having come to interrogate the ‘Exalted One,’ we ask Your Honor about the falling man. Pray and tell us the cause of one’s downfall.

2) Easily known is the progressive one, easily known is the declining one. A lover of the Dharma is the progressive one. A hater of the Dharma is the declining one.

3) This we learn is the first cause of one’s downfall. Pray, O ‘Exalted One,’ tell us the second cause of one’s downfall.

4) The vicious are dear to him though in the virtuous, he finds nothing pleasing and favours the creeds of the vicious: this is the cause of one’s downfall.

5) This we learn is the second cause of one’s downfall. Pray and O ‘Exalted One,’ tell us the third cause of one’s downfall.

6) The man who is drowsy, fond of society, not industrious, indolent, and who expresses anger: this is the cause of one’s downfall.

7) This we learn as the third cause of one’s downfall. Pray, O ‘Exalted One,’ tell us the fourth cause of one’s downfall.

8) Whoever, though being rich, does not support his aged parents who have passed their youth: this is the cause of one’s downfall.

9) This we learn is the fourth cause of one’s downfall. Pray, O Exalted One, tell us the fifth cause of one’s downfall.

10) He who, by falsehood, deceives a Brahmana or an ascetic or any other mendicant: this is the cause of one’s downfall.

11) This we learn is the fifth cause of one’s own downfall. Pray, O ‘Exalted One,’ tell us the sixth cause of one’s downfall.

12) The man who owns much property, who has gold and food but enjoys alone his delicacies: this is the cause of one’s downfall.

13) This then we learn is the sixth cause of one’s downfall. Pray, O ‘Exalted One,’ and tell us the seventh cause of one’s downfall.

14) The man who prides in birth or wealth or clan and despises his own kinsmen: this is the cause of one’s downfall.

15) This we learn is the seventh cause of one’s downfall. Pray, O ‘Exalted One,’ tell us the eighth cause of one’s downfall.

16) The man who is a debauchee, a drunkard, a gambler and who squanders whatever he possesses: this is the cause of one’s downfall.

17) This we learn is the eighth cause of one’s downfall. Pray, O ‘Exalted One,’ tell us the ninth cause of one’s downfall.

18) Not contented with one’s own wives, if one is seen amongst courtesans and the wives of others: this is the cause of one’s downfall.

19) This we learn is the ninth cause of one’s downfall. Pray, O ‘Exalted One,’ tell us the tenth cause of one’s downfall.

20) The man who, past his youth, brings a very young wife and sleeps not for jealousy of her: this is the cause of one’s downfall.

21) This we learn is the tenth cause of one’s downfall. Pray, O Exalted One, tell us the eleventh cause of one’s downfall.

22) He who places in authority an intemperate spend-thrift woman, or a man of similar nature: this is the cause of one’s downfall.

23) Then this we learn is the eleventh cause of one’s downfall. Pray, O Exalted One, tell us the twelfth cause of one’s downfall.

24) He, who of slender means but vast ambition or of warrior birth, aspires to sovereignty: this is the cause of one’s downfall.

25) Knowing well these causes of downfall in the world, the Noble Sage, endowed with insight, shares a happy realm.

 

Ratana Sutta—Jewels

1) Whatever beings are assembled, whether terrestrial or celestial, may every being be happy! Moreover, may they be attentively listen to my words!

2) Accordingly, give good heed to all beings; show your love to the humans who day and night bring offerings to you. Wherefore guard them zealously.

3) Whatsoever treasure there be either here or in the world beyond or whatever precious jewel in the heavens yet there is non comparable with the ‘Accomplished One.’

Truly, in the Buddha, is this precious jewel.

By this truth may there be happiness!

4) The tranquil Sage of the Sakya realized that cessation, passion-free (free of passion), immortality supreme, there is no comparable with that of the Dharma. Truly, in the Dharma, is this precious jewel. By this truth may there be happiness!

5) That sanctity praised by the Buddha Supreme, is described as “concentration without interruption.” There is nothing like that concentration. Truly, in the Dharma, is this precious jewel. By this truth may there be happiness!

6) Those eight individuals, praised by the virtuous, constitute four pairs. They, worthy of offerings, the disciples of the ‘Welcome One,’ to these gifts given yield abundant fruit.

Truly, in the Sangha, is this precious jewel. By this truth may there be happiness!

7) With steadfast mind, applying themselves throroughly in the dispensation (delivery) of the Gotama, exempt from passion, they have attained to that which should be attained and plunging into the deathless, they enjoy the peace obtained without price. Truly, in the Sangha is this precious jewel. By this truth may there be happiness!

8) Just as a firm post sunk in the earth cannot be shaken by the four winds, so do I declare him to be a righteous person, who thoroughly perceives the Noble Truths. Truly, in the Sangha, is this precious jewel! By this truth may there be happiness!

9) Those who comprehend clearly the Noble Truths, well taught by him of deep wisdom (do not, however, exceeding hedless they may be, undergo an eight birth). Truly, in the Sangha, is this precious jewel. By this truth may there be happiness!

10) For him with the development of insight three conditions come to none namely, illusion, doubt, and indulgence in wrong rites and ceremonies, should there be any. From the four states of misery, he is now absolutely freed and is incapable of committing the six heinous crimes.

11) Whatever evil deeds he does (whether by deeds, word or thought), he is incapable of hiding it: for it had been said that such an act is impossible for one who has seen the Path.

12) Like unto the woodland groves with blossomed tree-tops in the first heat of the summer season, had the sublime doctrine that leads to Nirvana been taught for the highest good. Truly, in the Buddha, is this precious jewel. By this truth may there be happiness!

13) The Unrivalled (Unparalleled) Excellent One, the Knower, the giver, and bringer of the Excellent has expounded the excellent Doctrine. Truly, in the Buddha, is this precious jewel. By this truth may there be happiness!

14) The past is extinct, future has not yet come, their minds are not attached to a future birth, their desires do not grow, those wise ones go out even as this lamp. Truly, in the Sangha, is this precious jewel. By this truth may there be happiness!

15) We, beings here assembled, whether terrestrial or celestial, salute the accomplished Buddha, honoured by gods and humans. May there be happiness!

16) We, beings here assembled whether terrestrial or celestial, salute the accomplished Buddha, honoured by gods and humans. May there be happiness!

17) We, beings here assembled whether terrestrial or celestial, salute the accomplished Buddha, honoured by gods and humans. May there be happiness!

 

Metta Sutta—Loving-kindness

1) He who skilled in his good and who wishes to attain that state of calm should act as follows: he should be efficient, upright, perfectly upright, obedient and humble.

2) Contented, easily supportable (fulfilled), with duties, of Right Livelihood, controlled in senses, discreet, not impudent, not be greedily attached to families.

3) He should not commit any slight wrong such that other wise men might censure him. May all beings be happy and secure! May their heart be wholesome!

4) Whatsoever living beings there be: feeble or strong, long, stout or medium, short, small or large, seen or unseen, those dwelling far or near, those who are born and those who are to be born—may all beings, without exception, be happy minded!

5) Let none deceive another nor despise any person whatsoever in any place. In anger or ill-will, let him not wish any harm to another.

6) Just as a mother would protect her only child at the risk of her own life, even so let him cultivate a boundless heart towards all beings.

7) Let his thoughts of boundless love pervade the whole world—above, below and across, without any obstruction, without any hatred, without any enemy.

8) Whether he walks, stands, lies down or sits, as long as he is awake, he should develop this mindfulness. This, they say, is the highest conduct here.

9) Not falling into error, virtuous and endowed with insight, he discards attachment to sense-desires. Of a truth, he does not come again for conception in a womb.