(I) Introduction: Occasion of Discourse.

 

Thus have I heard.

 

Once the Blessed One was dwelling among the Kuru folk at Kammasa-damma, a market town of the Kurus. Then the Blessed One spoke to the monks, saying, "Monks." The monks responded to the Blessed One, saying, "Venerable Sir."

 

The Blessed One said this:

 

(II) Discourse Proper (A & B)

(A) Single Out "The Only Way"

 

This is the only way, O monks, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the destruction of suffering and grief, for reaching the right path, for realizing Nibbana, namely, the Four Arousings of Mindfulness.

 

What are the Four?

 

(B) Outling The Four Arousing of Mindfulness (1, 2, 3 & 4)

 

Monks, here, a monk dwells contemplating the body, in the body, ardent, completely aware and mindful, having overcome, in the world, covetousness and grief; he dwells contemplating the feelings, in the feelings, ardent, completely aware and mindful, having overcome, in the world, covetousness and grief; he dwells contemplating mind, in the mind, ardent, completely aware and mindful, having overcome, in the world, covetousness and grief; he dwells contemplating things, in things, ardent, completely aware and mindful, having overcome, in the world, covetousness and grief.

(1) Contemplation on the Body (a, b, c, d, e & f)

And how, O monks, does a monk dwell contemplating the body, in the body?

(a) Mindfulness in the In & Out Breathing (i & ii)

(i) The Exposition

 

Here. O monks, a monk goes to the forest, to the foot of a tree or to an empty place, sits down, bends in his legs crosswise on his lap, keeps his body erect and arouses mindfulness (in the object of meditation) in front (of him).

 

Mindful, indeed, he breathes in and mindful he breathes out. Whilst breathing in long, he knows well, saying, "I breathe in long." Or whilst breathing out long, he knows well, saying, "I breathe out long." Whilst breathing in short, he knows well, saying, "I breathe in short." Or whilst breathing out short, he knows well, saying, "I breath out short."

 

He trains, saying, "Experiencing the whole (breath-) body, I shall breathe in." He trains, saying, "Experiencing the whole (breath-) body. I shall breathe out." He trains, saying, "Calming the (breath-) body-activity, I shall breathe in." He trains, saying, "Calming the (breath-) body-activity, I shall breathe out."

 

(ii) Analogy: Simile of the turner

 

Just as a clever turner or a turner’s apprentice, turning long, knows well, saying. "I turn long;" or turning short, knows well, saying, "1 turn short." Just so, indeed, O monks, a monk breathing in long, knows well, saying, "I breathe in long;" or breathing out long, he knows well, saying, "I breathe out long;" breathing in short, he knows well, saying, "I breathe in short;" or breathing out short, he knows well, saying, "I breathe out short".

 

He trains, saying, "Experiencing the whole (breath-) body, I shall breathe in." He trains, saying, "Experiencing the whole (breath-) body, I shall breathe out." He trains. saying, "Calming the (breath-) body-activity, I shall breathe in." He trains, saying, "Calming the (breath-) body-activity, I shall breathe out."

 

Thus he dwells contemplating the body in the (breath-) body, internally’ (in himself), or he dwells contemplating the body in the (breath-) body, externally (in another), or he (dwells contemplating the body in the (breath-) body, internally and externally (internally at one time and externally at another, alternately).

 

He dwells contemplating origination-things in the (breath-) body, or he dwells contemplating dissolution-things in the (breath-) body, or he dwells contemplating origination and dissolution-things (alternately) in the (breath-) body. Or, indeed, his mindfulness is established, saying, "The body exists," to the extent necessary for just knowledge, for just remembering, and he dwells independent and clings to naught in the world.

 

Thus, indeed, O monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body, in the body.


(b) The Four-fold Posture

 

And further. O monks, a monk whilst going, knows well, saying. "I am going;" or whilst standing, knows well, saying, "I am standing;" or whilst sitting, knows well, saying, "I am sitting;" or whilst lying down, knows well, saying, "I am lying down;" or just as his body comes to be disposed, just so he knows it well.

 

Thus he dwells contemplating the body, in the body, internally, or he dwells contemplating the body, in the body, externally, or he dwells contemplating the body, in the body, internally and externally . . .

 

Thus, indeed, O monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body, in the body.

 

(c) Mindfulness and Complete Awareness.

 

And further, O monk in going and in returning, is a person acting with complete awareness; in looking at and looking away from, he is a person acting with complete awareness; in wearing shoulder cloak, bowl and robes, he is a person acting with complete awareness; in eating, drinking, chewing and tasting, he is a person acting with complete awareness; in passing urine and faeces, he is a person acting with complete awareness; in going, standing, sitting, sleeping, waking, speaking and in the state of silence, he is a person acting with complete awareness.

 

Thus he dwells contemplating the body, in the body, internally, or he dwells contemplating the body, in the body, externally, or he dwells contemplating the body, in the body, internally and externally . . .

 

Thus, indeed, O monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body, in the body.

 

(d) Attention on the Impurity of the Body (i & ii)

(i) The Exposition

 

And further, O monks, a monk reflects on just this body hemmed by the skin, and full of manifold impurity, from the soles up, and from the top of the hair down, saying, "There is in this body, hair of the head, hair of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, fibrous threads (veins, nerves, sinews, tendons), bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, contents of stomach, intestines. mesentery, faeces, bile, phelgm, pus, blood, sweat, solid fat, tears, fat dissolved, saliva, mucus, synovic fluid, urine."

 

(ii) Analogy: Simile of the Grain bag

 

Just as if, O monks, there were a bag, having two openings, full of grain, differing in kind, namely, hillpaddy, paddy, green-gram, cow-pea, sesamum, rice, and a man with seeing eyes having unloosed it, should reflect, saying, "This is hill-paddy; this is paddy; this is green-gram; this is cow-pea; this is sesamum; this is rice."

 

In the same way, O monks, a monk reflects on just this body hemmed by the skin, and full of manifold impurity from the soles up, and from the top of the hair down, saying, "There are in this body hair of the head . . ."


Thus he dwells contemplating the body, in the body, internally; or he dwells contemplating the body, in the body, externally; or he dwells contemplating the body, in the body, internally and externally . . .

 

Thus, indeed, O monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body, in the body.

 

(e) Attention on the Elements (i & ii)

(i) The exposition

 

And further, O monks, a monk reflects on just this body, according as it is placed or disposed, by way of element. saying, "There are in this body, the element of solidity, the element of cohesion, the element of caloricity and the element of vibration."

 

(ii) Analogy: Simile of the cow-killer

 

O monks, should a clever cow-killer or a cow-killer’s apprentice, having killed a cow and divided it by way of portions, be sitting at a junction of four roads, in whatever manner.

 

In the same manner, a monk reflects on just this body, according as it is placed or disposed, by way of element, saying. "There is in this body, the element of solidity, the element of cohesion, the element of caloricity, and the element of vibration."

 

Thus he dwells contemplating the body, in the body, internally or he dwells contemplating the body, in the body, externally or he dwells contemplating the body, in the body, internally and externally . . .

 

Thus, indeed, O monks. a monk dwells contemplating the body, in the body.

 

(f) The Nine Charnel-ground contemplations

 

And further, O monks, in whatever way should a monk see (1) a body dead, one, two or three days, swollen, very blue, festering, thrown into the charnel-ground, saying, "Even this body (of mine) is verily such a thing (has a nature like that) is going to be so, cannot get past (escape) that (state)," he follows up the thought to just this body (of his).

 

Thus he dwells contemplating the body, in the body, internally or . . .


Thus indeed, O monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body, in the body.

 

And further, O monks, in whatever way should a monk see, whilst (2) it is being eaten by crows or hawks or vultures or dogs or jackals or by different kinds of worms, a body that had been thrown into a charnel-ground, saying, "Even this body (of mine) is verily such a thing (has a nature like that), is going to be so, cannot get past that (state)," he follows up the thought to just this body (of his).

 

Thus he dwells contemplating the body, in the body, internally or . . .

 

Thus, indeed, O monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body, in the body.

 

And further, 0 monks in whatever way should a monk see a body thrown into the charnel-ground, (3) a skeleton, together with (some) flesh and blood and held in by the tendons . . . (4) a skeleton without flesh besmeared with blood, held in by the tendons . . . (5) a skeleton without flesh and blood, held in by the tendons . . . (6) bones gone loose, scattered in all directions, - a bone of the hand, a bone of the foot, a shin bone, a thigh bone, the pelvis, spine and skull, each in a different place, — saying, " Even this body (of mine) is verily such a thing (has a nature like that), is going to be so, cannot get past that (state)," he follows up the thought to just this body (of his).

 

Thus he dwells contemplating the body, in the body, internally, or . . .

 

Thus, indeed, O monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body, in the body.

 

And further, O monks, in whatever way should a monk see a body thrown into the charnel-ground, (7) bones looking white in colour like a conch . . . (8) bones heaped together more than a year old . . . (9) bones rotten and become dust, saying, "Even this body (of mine) is verily such a thing (has a nature like that), is going to be so, cannot get past that (state)" he follows up the thought to just this body (of his).

 

Thus he dwells contemplating the body, in the body, internally, or he dwells contemplating the body, in the body, externally, or he dwells contemplating the body, in the body, internally and externally.

 

He dwells contemplating originating-things, in the body, or he dwells contemplating dissolution-things, in the body, or he dwells contemplating origination and dissolution-things, in the body. Or, indeed, his mindfulness is established, saying, "The body exists," to the extent necessary for just knowledge, for just remembering, and he dwells independent and clings to naught in the world.

 

Thus, indeed, O monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body, in the body.

 

(2) Contemplation on the Feelings

 

And how, O monks, does a monk dwell contemplating feeling, in feeling?

 

Here, O monks, a monk experiencing a pleasant feeling knows well, saying, "I experience a pleasant feeling;" in experiencing a painful feeling, knows well, saying, "I experience a painful feeling;" experiencing a neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling, knows well, saying. "I experience a neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling;" experiencing a pleasant worldly feeling, knows well, saying. "I experience a pleasant worldly feeling;" experiencing a pleasant non-worldly feeling, knows well, saying, "I experience a pleasant non-worldly feeling;" experiencing a painful worldly feeling, knows well, saying, "I experience a painful worldly feeling;" experiencing a painful non-worldly feeling, knows well, saying, "I experience a painful non-worldly feeling;" experiencing a neither-pleasant-nor-painful worldly feeling, knows well, saying, "I experience a neither-pleasant-nor-painful worldly feeling;" experiencing a neither-pleasant-nor-painful non-worldly feeling, knows well, saying, "I experience a neither-pleasant-nor-painful non-worldly feeling."

 

Thus he dwells contemplating feeling, in feeling, internally, or he dwells contemplating feeling, in feeling, externally, or he dwells contemplating feeling, in feeling, internally and externally.

 

He dwells contemplating origination-things, in feeling, or he dwells contemplating dissolution-things, in feeling, or he dwells contemplating origination and dissolution-things, in feeling. Or his mindfulness is established, saying, "Feeling exists," to the extent necessary for just knowledge, for just remembering, and he dwells independent and clings to naught in the world.

 

(3) Contemplation on mind

 

And how, O monks, does a monk dwell contemplating mind, in mind?

 

Here, O monks, a monk knows well the mind with lust, saying, "Mind with lust;" or he knows well the mind without lust, saying, "Mind without lust;" or he knows well the mind with hatred, saying, "Mind with hatred;" he knows well the mind without hatred, saying, "Mind without hatred;" or he knows well the mind with ignorance, saying, "Mind with ignorance;" or he knows well the mind without ignorance, saying, "Mind without ignorance;" he knows well the shrunken mind, saying, "Shrunken mind;" or he knows well the perplexed mind. saying, "Perplexed mind;" he knows well the mind become great, saying. "Mind become great;" or he knows well the mind not become great, saying, "Mind not become great." He knows well the mind with something higher (than it), saying, "Mind with something higher," or he knows well the mind with nothing higher (than it), saying. "Mind with nothing higher;" he knows well the quieted mind, saying, "Quieted mind," or he knows well the mind not quieted, saying, "Mind not quieted;" he knows well the freed mind, saying, "Freed mind;" or he knows well the unfreed mind, saying, "Unfreed mind."

 

Thus he dwells contemplating mind, in mind, internally, or he dwells contemplating mind, in mind, externally, or he dwells contemplating mind, in mind, internally and externally.


He dwells contemplating origination-things, in mind, or he dwells contemplating origination-things, in mind, or he dwells contemplating origination and dissolution-things, in mind. Or his mindfulness is established, saying, "Mind exists," to the extent necessary for just knowledge, for just remembering, and he dwells independent and clings to naught in the world.

 

Thus, indeed, O monks, a monk does dwell contemplating mind, in mind.

 

(4) Contemplation on things (a, b, c, d, & e)

 

And how, O monks, does a monk dwell contemplating things, in things?

 

(a) The five hindrances

 

Here, O monks, a monk dwells contemplating things, in the things of the five hindrances.

 

How, O monks, does a monk dwell contemplating things, in the things of the five hindrances?

 

Here, O monks, when sensuality is present within, a monk knows well, saying, "I have sensuality within," or when sensuality is not present within, knows well, saying, "I have no sensuality within."

 

In what manner the arising of the non-arisen sensuality comes to be, — that he knows well; in what manner the abandoning of the arisen sensuality comes to be — that he knows well; and in what manner the non-arising in the future of the abandoned sensuality comes to be, — that he knows well.

 

When anger is present within, he knows well, saying, "1 have anger within." . . .

 

When sloth and torpor are present within, he knows well, saying, "1 have sloth and torpor within." . . .

 

When flurry and worry are present within, he knows well, saying, "1 have flurry and worry within." . . .

 

When scepsis is present within, he knows well, saying, "I have scepsis within." . . .

 

In what manner the arising of the non-arisen scepsis comes to be, — that he knows well; in what manner, the abandoning of the arisen scepsis comes to be, — that he knows well; in what manner the non-arising in the future of the abandoned scepsis comes to be, — that he knows well.

 

Thus he dwells contemplating things, in things, internally, or he dwells contemplating things, in things, externally, or he dwells contemplating things, in things, internally and externally.

 

He dwells contemplating origination-things, in things, or he dwells contemplating dissolution-things, in things, or he dwells contemplating origination and dissolution-things, in things. Or his mindfulness is established, saying, "Things exist," to the extent necessary for just knowledge, for just remembering, and he dwells independent and clings to naught in the world.

 

Thus, indeed, O monks, a monk does dwell contemplating things, in the things of the five hindrances.

 

(b) The five grasping groups

 

And again, O monks, a monk dwells contemplating things, in the things of the five grasping groups.

 

And how, O monks, does a monk dwell contemplating things, in the things of the five grasping groups?

 

Here, O monks, a monk says: "Thus is material form; thus is the arising of material form; thus is the disappearance of material form. Thus is feeling; thus is the arising of feeling; thus is the disappearance of feeling. Thus is perception; thus is the arising of perception; thus is the disappearance of perception. Thus are the conformations; thus is the arising of the conformations; thus is the disappearance of the conformations. Thus is consciousness; thus is the arising of consciousness; thus is the disappearance of consciousness.


In this way he dwells contemplating things, in the things of the five grasping groups, internally, or . . .

 

(c) The six sense-bases

 

And further, O monks, a monk dwells contemplating things, in the things of the six internal and external sense-bases.

 

And how, O monks, does a monk dwell contemplating things, in the things of the six internal and external sense-bases?

 

Here, O monks, a monk knows well the eye and forms; and what fetter arises dependent on both (eye and forms) — that he knows well. In what manner the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be, — that he knows well; in what manner the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be, — that he knows well; and in what manner the non-arising, in the future, of the abandoned fetter comes to be, — that he knows well.


And he knows well the car and sounds . . . ; the nose and odours . . . ; the tongue and flavours . . . ; the body and tactiles . . . ; the mind and objects . . . And what fetter arises dependent on both, — that he knows well.

 

In what manner the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be, — that he knows well; in what manner the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to he, — that he knows well; and in what manner the non-arising, in the future, of the abandoned fetter comes to be, — that he knows well.

 

Thus he dwells contemplating things, in the things of the six internal and external sense-bases, internally or . . .

 

(d) The seven factors of enlightenment

 

And further, O monks, a monk dwells contemplating things, in the things of the seven factors of enlightenment.

 

And how, O monks, does a monk dwell contemplating things, in the things of the seven factors of enlightenment?

 

Here, O monks, when the enlightenment-factor of mindfulness is present within, he knows well, saying, "I have the enlightenment-factor of mindfulness within," or when the enlightenment-factor of mindfulness is absent within, he knows well, saving. "I have not within the enlightenment-factor of mindfulness.

 

In what manner the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of mindfulness comes to be, — that he knows well; in what manner the completion of culture of the arisen enlightenment-factor of mindfulness comes to be, — that he knows well.

 

Or when the enlightenment-factor of the investigation of things is present within . . . the enlightenment-factor of energy . . . the enlightenment-factor of joy . . . the enlightenment-factor of calm . . . the enlightenment-factor of concentration . . . the enlightenment-factor of equanimity is present within, he knows well, saying, "I have within the enlightenment-factor of equanimity." or when the enlightenment-factor of equanimity is absent within, he knows well, saying, "I have not the enlightenment-factor of equanimity within." 

 

In what manner the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of equanimity comes to be, — that he knows well; and in what manner the completion of culture of the arisen enlightenment-factor of equanimity comes to he, — that he knows well.

 

Thus he dwells contemplating things, in the things of the seven factors of enlightenment, internally, or . . .

 

(e) The four truths

 

And further, O monks, a monk dwells contemplating things, in the things of the four pure truths.

 

And how, O monks, does a monk dwell contemplating things, in the things of the four pure truths?

 

Here, O monks, a monk, saying, "This is suffering;" knows well according to reality; saying, "This is the origin of suffering;" knows well according to reality; saying, "This is the ceasing of suffering;" knows well according to reality; saying, "This is the way going to the ceasing of suffering;" knows well according to reality.

 

Thus he dwells contemplating things, in the things of the four pure truths, internally or . . .

 

(III) Practical Diffusing. Assurance of Attainment.

 

Indeed, O monks, should any person make become the Four Arousings of Mindfulness, seven years, in this way, by him one of two fruitions is proper to be expected: Knowledge (saintship), here and now, or in the event of the residuum being present, the state of Non-returning.

 

O monks, let alone seven years. Should any person make become these Four Arousings of Mindfulness, six years . . . five years . . . four years . . . three years . . . two years . . . one year, in this way . . .


O monks, let alone one year. Should any person make become these Four Arousings of Mindfulness, seven months, in this way, by him one of two fruitions is proper to be expected: Knowledge, here and now, or in the event of the residuum being present, the state of Non-returning.

 

O monks, let alone seven months. Should any person make become these Four Arousings of Mindfulness, six months . . . five months . . . four months . . . three months . . . two months . . . a month . . . half-a-month, in this way . . .

 

O monks, let alone half-a-month. Should any person make become these Four Arousings of Mindfulness, a week, in this way, by him one of two fruitions is proper to be expected: Knowledge, here and now, or in the event of the residuum being present, the state of Non-returning.

 

Thus, what was spoken, saying, "This is the only way, O monks . . . ", that was spoken because of this.

 

Satisfied, the monks approved of the words of the Blessed One.